April 9, 2018

Detectorists: in praise of small things

The defining moment of Detectorists, for me, is like most of the show’s scenes in that it is quiet, incidental, and not much seems to actually happen.

The two men, Lance and Andy, are walking over Essex farmland with their metal detectors. Lance gets a signal, digs a hole, drops to his knees to investigate, and retrieves something.

“What you got?” asks Andy.

“Carpet stair rod holder,” says Lance, holding it up.

“Yeah, I’ve had a couple of them,” says Andy.

“Must have been a flight of stairs here, once,” says Lance.

Then Lance lowers the little metal piece, and the two men look at the wide, empty field of farmland, and quietly ponder this. Then the show continues.

This is how it goes on Detectorists, a peaceful, gentle, contemplative show that is about small people doing small things. And the characters of Detectorists are very clearly small people: the show follows the Danebury Metal Detecting Club, a handful of oddball obsessives who scour the English countryside digging up and cataloging buttons, ring-pulls, and metal toy cars – trash, in short.

There is a floating notion that, like all detectorists, the DMDC is always looking for the one big find: a hoard of ancient gold, which could very well exist, since England has seen its fair share of ancient kings. This curious juxtaposition is strangely bittersweet, and compelling: these small, mild people are the inheritors of the land that was once walked by kings and queens, and now they putter through the countryside picking through soil as they try to unearth ancient lost trinkets. Andy and Lance will never have a Saxon burial, entombed in the hills with mounds of gold coins and treasure, nor will they ever flee Vikings or battle Norse men. Lance drives a forklift for a living, and Andy works temp jobs doing landscaping. They are far more concerned with catching University Challenge and fretting over their own quaint, slightly mismanaged lives.

This juxtaposition, though, is slowly undermined as the show goes on. Because the story quietly makes the case that England has seen rather a lot of history: there are Saxon tombs, and Medieval monks, and Roman burials, and all of these theoretically legendary peoples become somewhat lost in all this time, much like the remnants of their very existence are lost in the soil of Essex.

On a large enough timeline, everyone is very small. The life of a great king or queen is about the same size as an overenthusiastic hobbyist in southwestern England. It is, after all, just one life.

Paired with this argument is the recurring visuals of the series, for Detectorists is practically a love letter to Essex (or perhaps Suffolk, where it was mostly filmed). Each episode opens with a montage of quiet, natural wonders: the camera lingers lovingly on crystalline dew clinging to the dimples of ferns, or a grasshopper traversing a stalk of wheat, or butterflies flitting through dales and glens, their wings turned to stained glass by dawning light. This is the first sign that, though Detectorists is an English sitcom, it is a very unusual one.

And these scenes underline the show’s evolving contention: these moments are all ephemera, all fleeting, and all largely unnoticed. Existence happens everywhere, all the time, whether you know it or not. Just as the lives of the DMDC are small but still very real in comparison to the great kings and queens of England, the lives of butterflies and moths and ferns are smaller still, but just as valid, just as real.

Much like how a stairway and a home can flourish and foster lives and history, but then fade until it’s no more than a trinket in the ground – just because you didn’t see it happen, it doesn’t mean it didn’t happen. Nor does it mean that it did not matter.

The show makes this point adroitly in one scene where Lance consults with Sheila about what to do about his daughter who’s just come back into his life. Sheila is the spacey wife of Terry, the leader of the DMDC, and she’s mostly comic relief for much of the series – until she suddenly becomes earnest in this scene, and says, “But what you’ve got going for you now is that she’s met you, Lance. And you’re lovely. So she’s bound to come back when she’s ready.”

Lance thanks her for her advice, and says, “Never realized how often I’d thought about her over the last twenty years.” Then Sheila grows solemn and says with a hint of quiet desperation, “I know. Imagining every day what they might be doing now. What they would look like.” She looks away with tears in her eyes.

It is a beautiful, suddenly heartbreaking moment. Lance does not pick up on her sudden emotion, and the show does not explore this glimpse any further. We wonder – was it a child she gave away? A child that died? We aren’t sure. But we know that Sheila and Terry appear to be a childless couple, occupying their lives with dance classes and other activities. It isn’t until this moment that we wonder if they are trying to fill a vacancy, or distract themselves from something that was lost.

Endless moments unscroll and unfold beyond the boundaries of our little worlds, and we remain wholly ignorant of them. If the show urges the audience to do anything, it is perhaps to just sit, and watch, and wonder, and not take small things for granted. Lance makes a speech in the final episode of the show about how a detectorist is the closest thing we have to time travel, but I think this misses the larger point: a detectorist is someone who takes the time to look, and contemplates all the things they find, even if initially they don’t seem to matter much.

The final episode of Detectorists is full of sweet moments, but perhaps the sweetest for me returns to Shiela and Terry. Terry is a former policeman, and is full of enthusiastic, patrician officiousness, bouncing on the balls of his feet as he sets the world to rights with a confidence of an aging man maintaining his small courtyard garden. Terry is first played for laughs a bit in the series, having built up an extensive collection of cataloged buttons, but though the show first suggests this is somewhat ridiculous, it eventually comes to take him quite seriously.

Terry gets a signal, digs a hole, drops to his knees to investigate, and retrieves something. It is, naturally, a button. He holds it up, and calls to Sheila, who sits on the limb of an ancient tree across the field, drinking lemonade. “Button!” he calls. “Welsh Guard!” She raises her glass to him and smiles.

Terry then lowers the button, and looks around the field at all the people with him detecting on this beautiful summer day. And then, in a sudden burst of emotion, he is moved to happy tears. Perhaps you wonder if Terry is thinking of that hinted child, or perhaps not. But you are right there with him, by that point: on such a day, with such lovely people, how could you feel anything but joy?

One must take pleasure in small things, Detectorists suggests, for life is nothing but small things. But that does not mean it does not matter.

April 2, 2018

The Divine Cities – Hugo Nomination

While changing out of wet clothes at the lake this past weekend, I glanced at my phone, saw a good bit of notifications, and realized, “Ah, the news has gone out.”

I am pleased to say that The Divine Cities is nominated for a Hugo Award in the Best Series Category.

Thank you to everyone who nominated the series. And thank you even more to those who simply read the books. I have written books that people have read, and I have written books that people have not read. I wholeheartedly recommend the former.

Finishing a series is a strange, bittersweet experience. I wrote a little bit about that here, especially regarding how much my own life changed between starting Stairs and publishing Miracles. I’m reminded of the Paradox of the Ship of Theseus – if so much has changed over time, is it still the same thing?

I’ll definitely be in San Jose come August. And I’ll be eager to attend the famous Hugo Losers party, if possible, and don’t care at all if I’ll be doing so as a winner or a loser.

March 12, 2018

The flipside of “Murder Your Darlings”

Almost anyone who is even tangentially involved with writing has likely heard the phrase, “Murder your darlings.” This advice is oft-repeated for a reason: because it is true. You should be hyper-critical of your most beloved works precisely because you love them. Much like the parent who honestly believes their child can become a sports star, your love is a bias that can blind you to very real failings.

However, it’s not very often that we think of redirecting this figurative murder toward the darlings that we haven’t written: the books, shows, and movies that we adore, and can’t bring ourselves to criticize. We’re much more cavalier about criticizing our own works than we are the ones that we adore, and we will defend the adored works with far more ferocity than we would the ones we made ourselves.

This is a curious phenomenon – and, for a writer, a dangerous one.

The critical mindset

Despite all the negativity floating around, we live in a supremely uncritical world these days. By “critical” I don’t mean “saying bad things about something” – I mean stepping back, taking as close to an objective position as you can, and asking, “Is this working? Does this work?”

This is a difficult thing to do, let alone do well. The human brain is loaded with all kinds of heuristics – mental shortcuts – that tilt your entire thought process toward bias when it comes to almost any subject.

These biases are even more pronounced when you’re dealing with abstractions like stories. To hear someone steadfastly refuse to consider criticizing or analyzing their favorite works is a little like hearing:

Engineer: I really like this bridge.

Civilian: Can it bear a lot of weight?

Engineer: Well, I don’t know. But I really like this bridge.

Civilian: Wait – shouldn’t you test that? Or do some math or something?

Engineer: I don’t think you understand how cool-looking this bridge is. Look at it! Look at how cool the bridge looks!

Civilian: Maybe just drive one heavy load across it, and see how the joints respond, and from that you can extrapola-

Engineer: DON’T TOUCH MY GODDAMN BRIDGE

The difference is that bridges are physical objects, and thus can be tested and measured, and stories generally cannot. But rather than saying, “Oh, well, you can’t measure or test them at all, let’s just give up,” the critical response is to realize stories will be even harder to measure and analyze.

I don’t think my English degree gave me a lot of (or even any) marketable skills, but one thing they drilled into me was that, when reading critically, you did not read for plot (“Ooh, what’s going to happen next?”) or for character (“This guy is a badass, sick”) but rather you tried to discern the invisible mechanisms that power a story, and then analyze them to see if they’re actually doing what they’re supposed to be doing.

Some people say that this is impossible. These people are wrong and, if I were an editor, I would be extremely reluctant to consider their material. Others will say this takes the fun out of stories. This is like telling a car-lover that learning about engines takes the fun out of cars. (“Don’t you just want to see them go vroom and jump over shit??”)

The hardest part is identifying what the story is aiming to do. Not all stories are out to be entertaining in the same way, or move in the same way, or to feature the same people. For example, it’s become something of a trend to dunk on Ready Player One – but though you might not like what this story does, that doesn’t mean that it doesn’t do that thing well.

We don’t think like this when we consider treasured stories. We don’t think about what they’re trying to do – our reaction is instinctive, instantaneous: the thing that they do is inspire our passionate love, of course. We all think that we are unbiased, objective people – this is a bias in and of itself. But you will notice when you hit this bias when it comes to a much-adored work.

Mine was The Lord of the Rings. I was taking a medieval literature class, and they strayed into the subject of the books, and several of the students lodged complaints – namely that the books feature almost no female characters, and also that the idea of a “perfect race” of peoples (in this instance, the elves) is something of a cheap trick in storytelling.

I was gravely offended. Much more offended than I would have been if someone told me a story I wrote was terrible.

Then I went back and re-read the books, and I started counting how many pages went by without a female character on the page. I started formulating a response about how Eowyn is very active, so that torpedoes that problem! But then I realized that one female character out of, say, thirty characters is basically a 3% participation rate – 50% of the population participating 3% of the time.

You would not want this participation rate in an economy. It would be very bad. So – why would you want it in a story?

I didn’t realize it, but I was murdering my darling. This darling was not one that I had written. It was worse – it was one that I’d grown up with.

Why always with the problems

Already probably some readers are quailing at the idea. “Why do we have to find problems with everything?” they might ask. “Why can’t we just leave stuff alone?” The simple answer is, well, there are problems with everything. You want to get better? Then you have to be honest about that.

Especially when it comes to the stories you love the most – because when it comes to writing, you are what you eat. The stories that make up the literary tentpoles in the circus of your brain should be closely examined for faults – because if you aren’t aware of them, you’ll duplicate them over and over again, without ever being aware that you’re doing it.

How are you going to get better as a writer if you can’t criticize the stuff you love? How are you going to take an unbiased eye to your stories – the shit that the world will read, that may make up your name, your career, your paycheck – if you can’t do the same to a book you liked in high school?

This is the same logic that you see in the Me Too movement, which is just as critical of its allies as it is the most grave offenders, if not more so: you cannot build a sustainable movement if the people who are supposed to power it forward are undermining it.

In this regard, while it’s hard to criticize our darlings, it’s often even harder to criticize the stories that are saying the things we want to be said. These are stories that propound an ideology we fervently believe, a worldview we support. It’s far more difficult to analyze these because it can feel like we’re criticizing the ideology rather than the story.

But a good writer is usually a pretty good critic. And a critic is different from a fan or a devotee.

There is an instinctive revulsion to the idea of tinkering with the nuts and bolts of a beloved, admired story. But it is something you will need to learn to do if you want to get better as a writer. If you simply can’t begin to take the knife to your most-admired darlings, then I suspect you will have a hard time improving as a writer. (You DEFINITELY find it difficult, if not impossible, to improve as an editor.)

This doesn’t mean you’ll be a bad writer – maybe you have a lot of talent, and you can start off good right out of the gate. In which case, wow, good for you!

But most people are bad writers. Since all writers are (usually) people, this would mean that most writers are also bad writers.

Which is something a critic knows.

March 8, 2018

BLACK PANTHER was okay

Marvel’s Black Panther is a huge accomplishment in many, many ways. It’s the first depiction of Afrofuturism I’ve seen produced on such a massive scale, and it’s the first African superhero I’ve certainly ever seen, not to mention one of the first superhero movies to feature an almost entirely black cast – with a significant number of female players, at that.

Even more audacious, Black Panther – a Marvel product that is owned by Disney – actually engages with the systematic historical pain, suffering, and oppression that black people have been burdened with over the past four hundred years. I can safely say that I could have never expected a Disney superhero movie – usually entertaining, forgettable fluff – to deal with slavery and all of its consequences head-on.

And yet…

And yet, the movie remains a mild disappointment for me, purely for story reasons. The movie actually wounds its righteous, rhetorical momentum by failing to hit a couple of key marks. But the more I think about the movie, the less certain I am that it could have possibly ever hit those key marks. I’m not sure.

The problem is the most intriguing character in the movie, and arguably the figure who embodies the moral heart of the story: the villain, Killmonger, played by Michael B. Jordan.

Spoilers continue.

The problems with the story

Here is what I could gather of Killmonger’s plan in the movie Black Panther:

First he assists the South African arms dealer Ulysses Klaue in stealing a hunk of vibranium from a museum. Then he steps out of the plan (and the movie) for a while altogether.

The movie follows Klaue as he intends to sell the vibranium to the CIA, for reasons that aren’t entirely clear. The Wakandans accidentally blow the sale, leading to an intense scene in which they capture Klaue.

Killmonger pops back up to rescue Klaue, stealing him away and engaging with T’Challa (his cousin and, presumably, big thematic foil) for the first time – he shoots a grenade at him, knocking him to the ground. T’Challa glimpses the ring around Killmonger’s neck. No words are exchanged during this interaction.

The movie then follows Killmonger as he takes Klaue to an airfield, where he asks to go to Wakanda. Klaue refuses, and Killmonger betrays him, killing Klaue’s henchman, Killmonger’s own (unnamed, largely underdeveloped) sidekick/girlfriend, and then Klaue himself.

Uhhh – okay?

It is difficult to capture how sudden and abrupt this is. One minute, Klaue has been rescued by Killmonger – the next, Killmonger has killed Klaue, along with everyone Killmonger has associated with thus far in the movie. Not only are Killmonger’s goals and intentions still largely inscrutable to the audience, but his actions render nearly all of Klaue’s plot and all of Killmonger’s interactions with Klaue a moot point.

Because it turns out, all Killmonger needed to advance his plan was to take Klaue’s body – he suddenly materializes on the outskirts of Wakanda with the man’s corpse, and he quickly trades it for access with the royal council.

So – why did he steal the vibranium? Why did he rescue Klaue? Why did he get himself into a situation where he had to kill his girlfriend? What does he want? These answers are not made clear to the audience.

While this is occurring, we learn more about Killmonger, but this is purely tell, not show – the CIA operative helping the Wakandans essentially fills in all of Killmonger’s backstory within a couple of sentences while they look at a projected image of him.

Killmonger, having brought Klaue’s corpse to Wakanda (how he got there at all, let alone past all the technological barriers that presumably hide Wakanda from outsiders, is not known) is given a chance to speak to the Wakandan royal council. They consent.

He reveals himself as T’Challa’s cousin, and proposes ritual combat to determine who should be the King of the Wakandans. They consent.

He thoroughly beats T’Challa’s ass, and declares himself the King of the Wakandans. They (largely) consent.

One begins to sense a certain arbitrariness to all of this. Killmonger has some great lines, some powerful comments about racial oppression and accusations against the passiveness of Wakanda, but this is mostly the first time we’ve heard this from him. He really hasn’t talked a lot in this movie, up until this point. His character has not so much been developed as materialized, like he’s been teleported into the plot.

Worse, we do not see him struggle. He does not have to plot, plan, scheme, make deals, or compromise to challenge T’Challa and take over Wakanda. He just has to show up, declare himself, and kick T’Challa’s ass. The impression you get is that his entire coup takes place in a handful of hours, and it is executed almost single-handedly.

This is a serious failing. Killmonger says lines about how he’s prepared his whole life for this moment – but we haven’t seen any of that. And what we have seen of him thus far – the museum heist, killing Klaue and his own girlfriend – they don’t indicate this at all. The line, spoken with intense gravitas, borders on the absurd in the moment, like in Walk Hard, when Pa Cox offhandedly mentions he’s been spending years training his body and mind to kill his own son in a machete fight.

To challenge the king of a secret, fantastically advanced nation is no small task. We should see someone preparing for that. We should get the impression that it is quite hard to do. We get neither.

Now that he is (immediately, suddenly) King of Wakanda, Killmonger announces that they’re going to start sending advanced vibranium weapons to peoples of African descent around the world in order to help them rise up against their oppressors. The Wakandans immediately consent.

All of this feels deeply out of place. Killmonger mentions he has “war dogs” all over the world, but aside from the opening scenes, they haven’t been pivotal to the story. All we’ve seen of Killmonger is the museum heist, Klaue’s rescue, the shootout at the airfield, and then his coup. We have not seen him preparing for a vast global takeover. We had no idea this was even on the table until he said it.

Even more so, Killmonger has not only taken over an entire nation in, like, the amount of time it takes to smoke a brisket – he’s also gotten them to reverse hundreds of years of foreign policy, and launch an empire. This doesn’t work at all with our conception of Wakanda at this point – secret, difficult to access, advanced, and most of all, superior.

Because Wakandans are supposedly better than all the other nations, and, supposedly, they have been for a while. Their passiveness and indifference to black oppression is their critical failing, yes, but you don’t get the idea that these guys are schlubs or anything. And yet, after defeating T’Challa, they essentially become plot mechanisms for Killmonger’s will. We just met you, but you say you’re our king now? Sure, great! We just met you, but you want us to take over the world? Sure, great!

So when T’Challa returns, and defeats Killmonger, the victory feels robbed of significance. Because we now have the impression that it is pretty easy to become King of Wakanda, taking back that crown feels diminished.

In a lot of ways, this is a common Marvel feature – its villains are poorly-developed and largely forgettable. Hela from Thor: Ragnarok even follows a very similar arc: she literally pops into existence (whereas Killmonger just materializes on the border), takes over the nation, and goes about changing everything in seconds. The story isn’t terribly interested in how she does this, nor is it preoccupied with why: she’s the villain, and that’s just how these things go. Standard, unobjectionable comic book movie fare.

The difference is that Hela’s takeover of Asgard is not the point of Ragnarok. She is fun, and there’s some interesting nuances there about colonization and a brutal history of conquest that no one wants to talk about, but the point of the movie is to stick Thor in a weird, sci-fi dystopia where he has to fight the Hulk, develop quirky allies, and win his way back home. Hence why Hela’s takeover of Asgard takes place within the first, like, quarter or fifth of the movie – we’re not even out of the first act before she’s sitting on the throne. It’s business the movie is looking to get out of the way.

This is not the case for Black Panther. Killmonger is the point of the movie: he is the living embodiment of how Wakanda turned its back on the African peoples of the world, and enriched itself while they were enslaved, tortured, brutalized, and dispersed. His takeover of the throne is the crux of the whole film. So, the standard Marvel approach to villains falls miserably short here.

A conversation you don’t want to have

The problem here is that Killmonger, like most villains, is largely defined by what the hero does in the story – and T’Challah really has almost nothing to do.

Like, when he first takes the throne, his two big choices are, “Chase down an arms dealer,” and, “Maintain the foreign policy status quo of doing nothing.” This is… not a heavy checklist for a superpowered king. With nothing to do, there’s really very little for the hero and the villain to butt heads over, so the bad guy has to basically import the entire conflict by himself. When Killmonger drags the dead body into Wakanda, he’s essentially carrying the plot in a bag, as well.

Consider that the movie is missing a critical, classic scene that’s common to superhero movies: the sitdown. The setup goes thusly: the hero and the villain have engaged each other at least more than once. The hero is largely aware of the villain’s plans and circumstances, but not entirely (the villain, of course, has some tricks up his sleeve). The hero and the villain get into a situation where they can’t or won’t attack each other. It is at this point that they begin to talk, discuss each other’s arguments, and poke holes in what the other believes, before they are forced to part ways.

Sometimes these scenes last only a handful of seconds – an exchange of just a few lines. Other times they’re much larger, like the scene with Batman and the Joker in the holding cell. But this scene helps the audience grasp the stakes: it sheds light on how these two entities are working toward two different worldviews with two different sets of values – yet we begin to see the flaws in both, understanding that neither is entirely right. (There can be some shading here – the hero can be, like, 90% right, and only 10% wrong – but he can’t be 100% right, because that would be very boring. The point of the movie is usually that the hero has to adjust his worldview in order to win.)

But you can see why the movie never has the sitdown scene with Killmonger and T’Challa – because they’d have nothing to talk about! Killmonger’s position is, “Let’s do something,” and T’Challa’s position seems to be, “Gee, I dunno.”

This strikes up another Marvel comparison, this one with perhaps that world’s most famous, righteous villain, the bad guy you’d probably fight for if it really came right down to it: Magneto.

Much like Killmonger, Magneto is righteously fighting to protect the oppressed, and he’s willing to go to any ends to make sure that happens. The difference here is that Charles Xavier is fighting to protect the oppressed, too – he’s just pursuing the more peaceful means of persuasion, rather than going with war and division.

Compare this to Killmonger and T’Challa. Killmonger is Magneto, advocating for striking back and protecting the oppressed. But unlike Charles Xavier, T’Challa’s original position is just to keep doing… nothing.

Yeah. That sucks.

The movie could have stepped around this by having T’Challa start basically at the end of the movie – by incrementally increasing interaction with the outside world. This would give him something to actually do from the beginning, and would cause internal consternation in Wakanda, which you’ve got to have if you’re telling a royal intrigue story. It would also offer actual plans for Killmonger to interfere with and sabotage, and it’d be a point of conflict that could help elucidate the two men’s positions. Killmonger could say, “You think this is enough? After centuries of ignoring everyone else’s hardship? No, no, no – in fact, it’s time that Wakanda suffers just like the rest of Africa has.” Or something to that effect. This would create a more gradual, cohesive conflict, rather than having the villain show up and say, “Hi I’m king now, let’s take over the world,” and having the entire nation agree to do so in the space of, what, like an afternoon or something?

The images of Black Panther are full of messages – depictions of dignified, empowered Africans, men and women alike, living in a future that they’ve determined for themselves – but the story is anemicin comparison.

It is a great thing, to see Black Panther in this world. But Black Panther itself could have been much more.

March 7, 2018

FOUNDRYSIDE

I have been sitting on this one for quite a while, and am happy to finally be able to announce it – my next novel is FOUNDRYSIDE, first of THE FOUNDERS TRILOGY, which will be coming out August 23rd of this year!

Foundryside RD4 clean flat

In a city that runs on industrialized magic, a secret war will be fought to overwrite reality itself–the first in a dazzling new fantasy series from City of Stairs author Robert Jackson Bennett.

Sancia Grado is a thief, and a damn good one. And her latest target, a heavily guarded warehouse on Tevanne’s docks, is nothing her unique abilities can’t handle.

But unbeknownst to her, Sancia’s been sent to steal an artifact of unimaginable power, an object that could revolutionize the magical technology known as scriving. The Merchant Houses who control this magic—the art of using coded commands to imbue everyday objects with sentience—have already used it to transform Tevanne into a vast, remorseless capitalist machine. But if they can unlock the artifact’s secrets, they will rewrite the world itself to suit their aims.

Now someone in those Houses wants Sancia dead, and the artifact for themselves. And in the city of Tevanne, there’s nobody with the power to stop them.

To have a chance at surviving—and at stopping the deadly transformation that’s under way—Sancia will have to marshal unlikely allies, learn to harness the artifact’s power for herself, and undergo her own transformation, one that will turn her into something she could never have imagined.

This book was an incredible amount of fun to write. I first had the nuggets of the idea way back in 2015, when I was flying to New York Comic Con and reading Venice: A New History on the flight. The idea of the city-state nation dominated by family factions has always interested me, and I thought it’d be fun to write a book about one such city that discovered a type of magic – and then did what any normal person would do, which is make a ton of money off of it.

But this makes me ask – what kind of magic is this supposed to be?

I had that idea a little while later, traveling for work. I was listening to Hello From the Magic Tavern, a favorite comedy impov podcast of mine that lovingly parodies fantasy tropes, and I was struck by how the wizards in the show define their magic: each wizard’s magic seems to originate from a tension between two opposites – light vs. shadow, truth vs. lies, and… time vs. space. (This last one makes no sense, but neither does that particular wizard.)

This was an interesting idea. It seemed like magic was a bit like fire – a phenomenon created by conflict, or an argument. I remember sitting in my hotel room, thinking about magic as an argument, about how you could convince an object’s reality to be something that it isn’t, but only if you were really persuasive about it, giving it very convincing instructions… kind of like a code.

In other words, you could create a code to reprogram reality – if you wrote it the right way, that is.

FOUNDRYSIDE is about an augmented thief trying to survive in a city dominated by four merchant houses who have become incredibly good at this kind of magic, building it up to an industrial scale and using it to create four very separate trade empires.

I found myself describing their house signs in the story (or, as the people in the book call them, loggotipos), and I asked my favorite artist Chanh Quach to create these house loggotipos, along with the motto of each house.

CompanyCandiano-RJB-WEB

FOUNDRYSIDE, the first novel of THE FOUNDERS TRILOGY, will be coming out in hardback August 23rd in the US. It is available now for preorder.

UPDATE: Happy to reveal the UK cover for FOUNDRYSIDE, out in August from Jo Fletcher Books!

November 1, 2017

Soap Plots

There are certain kind of stories where the goal is to create drama, but not so much that you’d have to change characters, locations, or even relationship dynamics. I’ve come to start thinking of these as “soap plots,” in that the goal is to complicate the characters’ lives while avoiding any overall story change. (The origin of the term, of course, comes from soap operas.)

This is different from a story that is about dramatic relationships – who slept with who, who had whose baby in secret, and so on. While these might be stories that are featured in “soaps,” if the plot causes the story to change on any macro scale – new location, new conflicts, new themes, new characters, etc. – then it is not, by definition, a soap plot.

Poldark on PBS is the most recent one of these. PBS Masterpiece shows seem prone to these plots: while being ostensibly about the changing times, Downton Abbey steadfastly refused to change much, and resorted to ludicrous legal complications (rape, dead rapists who died under strange circumstances, ex-wives who died under strange circumstances, and so on) to keep the character relationships exactly where they are. The overall experience was a lot of stuff going on, and yet nothing was happening. The choices do not matter, which means there are no stakes.

Poldark is similar in that it keeps throwing obstacles in the way of the characters to maintain a lot of the same dynamics. Though the story is based on a book series, and thus has to keep to some character mixups, there are times that the characters make intentionally stupid choices just to maintain status quo.

One show that found (or was forced to find) a way around this is Halt and Catch Fire, which essentially built a whole new show every season, skipping forward in time to find that a lot of the character dynamics had totally changed and telling a whole new story. Mad Men and The Wire figured out the same methodology. It’s a device that acts as a service for the writer probably even more than the reader: by totally eliminating the option to do the same old same old, you’re forced to innovate.

May 3, 2017

Five years.

In case you were not aware, CITY OF MIRACLES came out this Tuesday.

It’s a very long time coming. My records show I wrote the first page of CITY OF STAIRS on April 30 of 2012.

When I did that, my son looked like this:

Now, almost five years to the day later, he looks like this:

It is very odd to have a project that tracks time in such a fashion. Children function like clocks, when it comes to time on a larger scale: by changing so rapidly, they let you know that, even though it feels like I wrote STAIRS just last month, it was actually a very long time ago indeed.

Things change. That’s what I write about a bit over here on Unbound Worlds, on my feelings about finishing a series.

Writing this book was a tremendously odd experience. I’ve had an idea of what would happen for over three years now. Three years is a very long time to shut the windows, lock the doors, put out the lights, and say goodbye. Almost half the lifespan of this series, writing-wise, was spent devoted to its ending.

But I did not completely understand how it would end until I was about a quarter of the way in to Miracles. I was in a hotel room, alone and missing my family, and I found a song I liked, and I listened to it over and over and over again. Specifically, I liked how the song was about a singer promising a girl that he would stay, and be with her; and though the words sound like he means it, there’s a sudden, slight dip into a minor key in the refrain, right at the words, “for a while.”

And then you know he’s lying to her. He doesn’t want to leave, but he’s going to. It’s a subtle yet deeply fatalistic moment.

And it was as I listened to this song that I realized I knew how the book was supposed to end. In fact, I’d always known, but hadn’t wanted to admit it. It was a surprisingly unpleasant and surreal experience. It was a bit like waking up one morning and filling out a lot of insurance paper work, and writing a lot of letters to be mailed, and taking care of your business, and then putting on your nice clothes and getting in the car, and it’s only once you’re on the road that you suddenly realize that you are, in fact, about to commit suicide, and have actually been planning this for a very long time, but have hidden your own intentions for yourself just to be polite about it.

That is an odd way of putting it. But it captures some of the truth of that feeling.

Those who have already finished the song will probably find some of the song’s words familiar.

January 19, 2017

Obama Cunctator

I have heard this comparison before, but it’s worth repeating here.

In a lot of ways, Obama is America’s Fabius Maximus.

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Back in the old days, before Julius Caesar and whatnot, the Roman military was super, super macho. You just advanced on the enemy and pounded the shit out of them until they surrendered. And this worked pretty great for a pretty long time, because there were a lot of Romans, they were well trained, and they just kept coming.

But then Hannibal Barca came along and crossed the Alps. And Hannibal was not stupid. Hannibal never committed to a pitched battle he didn’t think he could win. He evaded and evaded the Romans until he had them where he wanted them – and then he kicked the everliving shit out of them.

Because the Romans always thought they could win. Always. They were the Romans. Winning was what they did. They were the big winners, every time. And because they always thought that, they kept losing to Hannibal.

Hannibal almost took Rome itself. The Romans, desperate, appointed Fabius Maximus as their dictator. And Fabius did things very differently.

Fabius fought like Hannibal. He evaded pitched battles, and he fought conservatively, trying to contain Hannibal’s forces and drag them into a long, slow war of attrition, exhausting them over time, because Hannibal had no easy access to more reinforcements. He’d crossed the Alps. He was stuck here. You just had to avoid another devastating battle.

This is where “Fabian Warfare” comes from – you don’t fight the enemy. You exhaust them, picking them off one by one and disrupting their operations until they don’t want to fight anymore. It takes the calm, long view of leadership, rather than the immediate, short-term view of battles.

This worked quite well. For a while.

Because the Romans FUCKING HATED IT.

This wasn’t macho! This wasn’t brave! This wasn’t Roman! This was cowardly. They started calling Fabius “Cunctator” – meaning “lingerer” – out of sheer disdain for his leadership. (It didn’t help that Fabius also had internal political enemies undermining every single thing they did.)

Tired of this, the Romans brashly dismissed Fabius. They installed new leadership, who would fight the old way, the Roman way, and Make Rome Great Again.

The Romans then met Hannibal at the Battle of Cannae – and their whole army got absolutely, completely annihilated. Cannae is, to this day, generally considered to be the single greatest defeat in Roman history, and one of the worst military losses of all time. Hannibal and Cannae would go on to haunt the minds of Romans for generations.

After that, Fabius’s conservatism and his caution didn’t look so bad. The term “Cunctator” stopped being an insult and became a phrase of respect.

So here we are. A cautious, conservative leader who takes the reins in a period of great turmoil; a leader who focuses on the long term and refuses to commit to immediate fights; a leader who doesn’t react quickly enough to internal political enemies undermining his efforts; a leader whose style and character is disdained and discarded in exchange for a new style of tough, masculine leadership, the old way of doing things.

Obama Cunctator. And many a Cannae await us.

January 9, 2017

If I’d written the prequels

I saw Rogue One over the weekend, and while I found it overall pretty enjoyable, one thing it did was reignite a longstanding desire I’ve had to scribble down some thoughts. 

Everyone has a hobby story in their brain. Often these are fan versions of other stories – alterations and fixes you’d like to make to a story that you really like, but you’d like even more if they’d done this instead of that, and so on. It’s like building a model of a historic plane, but altering it just a little bit so it wouldn’t have crashed.

I have no doubt that the Star Wars prequels are a hobby story in other people’s brains. Rarely have we seen so much potential totally squandered. Since Rogue One stirred this up in me, I figured I’d go ahead put down my own thoughts about how, if I had the chance, I’d have totally rewritten the series – specifically in regards to the character arc of Anakin Skywalker, who is basically the whole reason the prequels existed, and maybe one of the key reasons they fail so miserably.

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 The first thing we have to acknowledge is that the prequels were, in essence, pre-destined to be dark.

They had to be. There was no other way to do it. They were inevitably going to be about the corruption of a great person, the genocide and death of a venerated monastic order, and the emergence of a brutal, monstrous, fascistic regime. In a lot of ways, the pre-New Hope Star Wars mythos functions like so many religious myths – things were good once, but then things went awry, the gods failed, and now the world is marred.

This makes it a difficult story to examine from the very outset – gods and saints and legends work so well in stories told second hand, but fare poorer when examined up close. It is very hard to make both the human being and legend work at once without either losing any of their credulity or luster.

The best source material for this kind of thing, then, are stories like Paradise Lost and Greek tragedy. Inhuman stories about human things.

In other words, basically the polar opposite of a gosh-wow kiddie space cartoon, one that practically could have been written by a nine year old.

Anyways. Moving on.

Episode One

I won’t bore you with the beat by beat specifics of how the story should work – which Galactic Republic trade law inspired what diplomatic crisis, and so on – so I’ll get to the point: generally, the protagonist of the prequels feels like it should have been Obi-Wan, acting as the audience’s surrogate as he first experiences Anakin come into his life, comes to love him like a brother, and watches, puzzled, frustrated, and torn as his friend turns into something he doesn’t understand. To start the series off, I’d have kept Obi-Wan and Qui-Gon going to Tatooine and discovering Anakin as a slave child there.

But everything about this Anakin would be very different – because, you know, this is a slave child we’re talking about here. This is an aspect of Anakin’s life that goes almost completely unexplored in the prequels. This kid likely had a horrible life before the Jedi showed up. What kind of person does that make?

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I remember watching Looper years back, which features a traumatized, moody young boy who’s a mechanical genius and also has special powers – but his personality and these powers combine in a manner to make him both totally terrifying and also genuinely heartbreaking. You can see he can’t control who he is or what he does. He’s at the mercy of his nature, and the circumstances that have forged him. I think I would have written a young Anakin Skywalker much closer to this than the cheery young boy in the movie, who seems only mildly inconvenienced by his bondage.

I’d have probably bumped his age up some, to twelve or thirteen, just so the audience can watch what I’m about to put him through without feeling horrified. In this version in my head, Anakin is a slave child who is owned by a particularly brutal owner who has realized both the boy’s incredible mechanical prowess, and his unusual Force powers.

In order to make the boy work for him, he is not only holding Anakin’s mother hostage – he also uses a magnetized restraint system in case Anakin tries to use his nascent Force abilities: if Anakin tries anything, his owner hits a button, and magnetic shackles on his wrists and ankles rip the boy backwards into a large, mechanical metal shell that the owner always keeps close by. The shell would look a like an iron maiden, and the shackles fling young Anakin into this device, which would then slam shut, completely sealing him in. This shell restrains Anakin and keeps his owner protected from the boy’s underdeveloped abilities – and while Anakin is trapped in the shell, his owner whispers threats about the things he’ll do to Anakin’s mother if he ever tries anything again.

This is, in my head, how we and Obi-Wan Kenobe would first see Anakin Skywalker: a young boy, trapped in a metal shell, raging and furious and frightened, peering through a tiny slit at these new arrivals. And this shell, of course, would look vaguely like the final Vader suit, at least in profile.

Anakin’s owner extracts a hefty price from the shipwrecked Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan in exchange for forcing Anakin to fix their spacecraft. The two immediately realize the boy’s incredible powers, and then have to debate what to do about him. (It goes without saying that I would cut the immaculate conception and mitochondria bullshit.) They eventually take him, and I’d pencil in (this is one of those points in outlining where you write “some bullshit happens”) that they take his mother with him, though they make him understand that if he wants to become a Jedi, he’ll have to leave her behind. This causes a great deal of torment in the young man.

Anyways, Anakin is now with the Jedi, and he has a super big problem with them that would form the foundation of his eventual corruption – if the Jedi are so great, why do they permit planets like Tatooine to have, you know, slavery? If they can do anything, why can’t they fix everyone’s problems? Qui-Gon and Yoda would try to explain to him that power has consequences: the more you use it to force your will on the world, the easier it becomes to do so over and over again, until you’re forcing your will onto someone who doesn’t deserve it – if anyone does.

To Anakin, who’s suffered for years and grown up deeply traumatized, that answer naturally sounds like bullshit. They try to explain to him that their power is different – the more powerful you are, the greater the temptation and consequences. But, again, he remains unconvinced.

Then episode one draws to a close. I will be frank and say I don’t know what the hell the overarching plot is, really. My general idea is that Palpatine wants to essentially mount a false flag Sith uprising in order to push the Republic into embracing fascism under his rule. There’s a million ways to do that, with the main question being – how is Anakin at all important to how that goes down? I barely recall the logic from the prequels in this regard, so, hey, let’s forget it and continue on with the vague outlining.

Episode Two

Another thing I can barely recall from the prequels is Amidala’s character – as in, who she is and what she wants. I think it’s smart to pair Anakin with a strong, political woman in the series – mostly because then you have a perspective into the political stuff going on in the Republic as well as the Jedi fun. I suspect I’d try and make her a passionate idealist, much like Anakin is at the beginning, someone who favors active interventionism in planetary affairs rather than conservative caution – she’d absolutely be down with making some planets free their slaves and end their regrettable practices. Anakin, who would be steadily growing disaffected with the Jedi Order’s tendency toward reticence and balance, would be drawn to her like a flame.

Speaking of which, I’d completely skip Anakin as gawky teenager, and in Episode Two I’d jump directly to him being closer to thirty – a fully grown man, in other words. In the period between Ep One and Two, Anakin would have evolved into a fearsome, accomplished Jedi warrior, one who is famous and beloved among the Republic but increasingly criticized among the Jedi Order. Anakin is a for-reals Man of Action, and tends to act boldly, risk his own life – even suicidally so – and he’s much more in keeping with the tall, brooding, weapon-of-mass destruction we see in Darth Vader later. The other Jedi respect his abilities, but worry about his total indifference to his own well-being, thinking him somewhat mad. I imagine a Fassbender or a Tom Hardy type as Anakin (Fassbender is probably way overused for the fallen hero type) rather than some kid. While Anakin himself is totally indifferent to his popularity, the Jedi are unnerved with how common citizens are reacting to him, and his influence among the younger Jedi.

I would keep Qui-Gon dying in the first episode, as well as a too-young Obi-Wan agreeing to become Anakin’s master, and this is where the Greek Tragedy stuff comes in. Obi-Wan is naturally a little miffed by how his student has rapidly outstripped him in but a handful of years. The two are much closer to being competitive brothers than a master and a subordinate, and since the two are closely bound by their experiencing Qui-Gon’s death, their feelings about each other are deeply complicated. They love each other, and help one another achieve great things, but they don’t understand each other.

Each man is envious of the other – Anakin envies Obi-Wan’s respect among the Jedi, his political power, and his maturity; Obi-Wan envies Anakin’s raw power, brash populism, and confidence. Anakin finds himself bewildered by how Obi-Wan’s pacifism keeps earning the respect of the elites; Obi-Wan is frustrated by how Anakin’s impetuous derring-do makes him a populist hero. Anakin is also quietly furious that he hasn’t been made a Jedi Knight yet, despite being, you know, a badass – but this is because he still can’t accept the Jedi’s sense of restraint. Why not go into cities and free the slaves? Why not act, why not be bold? There’d be a bit of Hotspur/Prince Hal going on here, in other words.

No, Percy, thou art but dust, and food for worms

No, Percy, thou art but dust, and food for worms

 

Things get even worse when the two are assigned to help Padme on whatever the hell she has going on in Episode Two. (I would junk the “Jedi can’t get married” thing.) It’s clear that both men are attracted to her, and a sort of love triangle evolves here. Since I’d be drawing from Greek tragedy here, it would be easy to amp up the brotherly love Castor/Pollux angle on Obi-Wan and Anakin until you’re a little, “Uhhh, are they sure it’s Padme they’re attracted to?” but I’m pretty sure Lucas wouldn’t have let me do that. Or any of this.

Again, the usual stuff is happening with the emperor in the background. At some point, Anakin’s mother gets captured or imperiled by the bad guys, perhaps aboard a giant spaceship, and a massive space battle ensues. Anakin and Obi-Wan board the burning craft, and are forced to decide whether they’re going to save Padme and Anakin’s mother, or fulfill Some Important Jedi or Republic Mission or Whatever. Obi-Wan chooses the Mission, whereas Anakin chooses to save Padme and his mother. Unfortunately, he is only able to save Padme, and his mother is murdered. The bad guys then think they have Anakin cornered – imagine the hold of a failing, burning ship where fifty to a hundred soldiers are all pointing weapons right at his head. But then Anakin, enraged and grieving, shows the full extent of his powers – and uses the Force to snap all of their necks at once. Everyone in the room with him except Padme is suddenly dead in an instant.

Padme is the only witness to this act. Since she’s grateful that he saved her, and she witnessed the murder of his mother, she understands what he’s going through, comforts him in his grief, and keeps his secret.

As Episode Two draws to a close, Anakin becomes a Jedi Knight for his conduct in the battle, though only he and Padme understand what he really did, since the bodies were destroyed as the ship crashed. Obi-Wan’s misgivings about Anakin increase, and Anakin blames Obi-Wan’s commitment to the Jedi sense of balance for his mother’s death. The two find themselves not only drawing apart, but actively opposing one another. Padme and Anakin, meanwhile, begin having an affair, and the Clone Wars begin. (Again, For Presumably Very Good Reasons that I won’t bother thinking too much about here. Though one thing I would definitely change is make the bad guys the Clone Troopers are fighting actual alive people rather than robots, to reduce the whole video game feel and make the war have actual stakes.)

Episode Three

In Episode Three, Anakin is closer to forty years old, and Obi-Wan several years older than that. (Again, I can’t emphasize enough how much these need to be mature actors playing mature roles here.) Palpatine is now actively courting Anakin’s favor, eager to use the Jedi’s populist power to sway the Republic. Anakin – who finds himself more and more frustrated with the obstructionist Jedi – is an eager participant, but Padme is not on board with the idealistic-zeal-thing anymore. Though she was once as passionate as Anakin about intervening in planetary life, she senses that she’s let the genie out of the bottle, and sees that all this populism and fear is drawing the Republic into a dark place. She finds herself identifying much more with Obi-Wan than Anakin, her lover. Anakin suspects something, but he’s not quite sure what’s going on.

Padme, of course, eventually becomes pregnant, and confides not in Anakin but in Obi-Wan. She knows it’s twins, and is increasingly worried about Anakin. She tries to confess what she saw Anakin do – killing a hundred people at once – but can’t bring herself to betray him. While this is going on, she and Obi-Wan begin to suspect that Palpatine is up to no good, and she goes to the Council to tell them their suspicions while Obi-Wan goes to Mustafar to investigate something that Palpatine has going on there. (Maybe the Death Star plans? Sure, why not.)

Things draw to a head on the Galactic stage. Palpatine uses manufactured excuses to increase aggression abroad with the Clone Troopers, to the objection of the Jedi Council – an objection that is deeply unpopular with the public. At one critical battle, the Jedi – who have begun to suspect what Palpatin is – are reluctant to send in reinforcements, to the fury of Anakin, who’s leading the assault. The battle is a failure, and he goes to Palpatine about it, just as Padme and the Jedi Council are confronting him about being a Sith.

Palpatine easily convinces Anakin, who has grown to detest the Jedi, that his old masters and comrades are trying to seize power, and a massive battle commences, in which Anakin delivers an absolutely brutal, murderous beatdown to about twenty Jedi single-handedly, though he’s gravely injured in the fighting by Yoda. Anakin, who now believes Padme has cheated on him with Obi-Wan, grievously injures her in a fit of rage, unaware than she is pregnant with his children. Yoda quits the battle to save Padme and try to keep her and her unborn children alive, though Anakin believes her to be dead.

Anakin, recovering from his wounds with the help of Palpatine, goes to Mustafar to stop Obi-Wan, whom Palpatine has convinced him is trying to sabotage the Republic. Anakin confronts Obi-Wan on the lava planet, screaming and ranting about how Obi-Wan and the Jedi have betrayed him from the beginning, how they’ve never tried to fix anything, claiming that it’s Obi-Wan’s fault that he killed Padme. Obi-Wan, grieved to hear about Padme’s death, implores Anakin to stop this, saying that his rage will destroy him and everything he loves. Anakin, still wounded, engages him in battle, and Obi-Wan kicks the ever-living shit out of him, cutting off his arm and whatnot, though Anakin just keeps coming. Obi-Wan finally subdues him, though, and refrains from killing him. Obi-Wan damages whatever it is that Palpatine had going on on Mustafar, and though it delays the Emperor’s plans, everyone knows it hasn’t stopped the Empire that’s coming.

Back with Yoda, it becomes clear that though Padme is alive, she’s also brain dead. Using their advanced scientific technology, they can keep her body alive long enough for her to bear her (probably very premature) children, but she dies upon childbirth. While they go through this process, artificially sustaining her life while she dies giving birth to her children, it cuts back and forth between another, darker birth as Palpatine reforges Anakin’s scarred, mangled body into Darth Vader. Palpatine claims that the Jedi tried to seize power from him, and that Anakin Skywalker died defending him – this inspires the Republic and the military to betray and assassinate the Jedi Order, with Darth Vader taking his place at the Emperor’s side.

Anakin, bitter, wounded, grieving, and furious, completely gives in to Palpatine’s influence. He ends the prequels much as he started – trapped inside of a metal shell, obeying the brutal, malicious whims of a cruel master. The difference is that though he was once a slave, and fought for freedom and equality, he is now the oppressor, and is a tool of the slavers. He has abandoned everything he believes in, and thinks he has destroyed everything he loved, and he becomes the monstrous weapon of mass destruction we all know and (somewhat) love.

***

Anyways. That’s how I’d do it. If I could do it, that is. I think there’s a lot to the idea of Anakin acting as a bit of a Lucifer in this story – he is a product of the world, he understands the nature of good and evil in this universe, and this is what leads him to reject the divine detachment of the Jedi Council. He’s a creature of impulse and desire, of strength and brute passion, rather than a moody child. His complaints about the world are very real, and his reactions to the Jedi’s precautions are justified to his perspective, though they spin out of control.

This would be contrasted with Obi-Wan, who grows steadily more cerebral and removed as the series goes on, perceiving the larger moral arc of the Force. The two contrast and compliment each other – one perceives, the other acts; one looks inward, the other outward. This helps them accomplish great things together, but their worldviews grow further and further apart until they’re no longer speaking the same language. At this point, Anakin becomes a bit like Hercules, always seeing snakes around him and murdering those he loves.

And that’s the aspect that I think works for him and translates most easily into Vader. The Anakin of the prequels we know is not a strong person. He whines. He pouts. He is angry, but somehow he is not deserving of this anger, even though the story gives him very good reasons to be angry – a slave ascended to monk, and then to general and commander, before finally evolving into an oppressor. This figure would not be a spoiled, refined brat, I believe. He would be a scarred thing, a wounded animal trying to veil his injuries behind the decorum and rites of an enigmatic religion, wishing to be the sort of person who would prevent the pains he’s suffered from ever being inflicted on another, before finally surrendering to his darkest impulses. He feels in his heart he does not belong in this world of elites and royalty. And then, like many who have been abused and lived lives of fear, he comes to respect the only thing that has dominated his life since he was a child – strength, power, and pain.

November 22, 2016

CITY OF MIRACLES US cover launch

I’m very pleased to bring you the official US cover for CITY OF MIRACLES, which will be released May 2nd of 2017!

This will be the final installment of THE DIVINE CITIES series, starring everyone’s favorite Dreyling murder machine, Sigrud. It’s readable as a standalone, just like the other books, but it’s highly recommended that you read the previous ones first.

City of Miracles_Final

Revenge. It’s something Sigrud je Harkvaldsson is very, very good at. Maybe the only thing.

So when he learns that his oldest friend and ally, former Prime Minister Shara Komayd, has been assassinated, he knows exactly what to do—and that no mortal force can stop him from meting out the suffering Shara’s killers deserve.

Yet as Sigrud pursues his quarry with his customary terrifying efficiency, he begins to fear that this battle is an unwinnable one. Because discovering the truth behind Shara’s death will require him to take up arms in a secret, decades-long war, face down an angry young god, and unravel the last mysteries of Bulikov, the city of miracles itself. And—perhaps most daunting of all—finally face the truth about his own cursed existence.

You can preorder it on Amazon at this link here. I’ll have information about the UK edition available shortly.

In addition to this fun stuff, I also have some great new character portraits of characters from the series by the tremendously talented Chanh Quach!

Sergeant Major Pandey from CITY OF BLADES:

Pandey01-web

General Lalith Biswal from CITY OF BLADES:

Biswal01-web

Foreign Affairs Minister Vinya Komayd from CITY OF STAIRS – and, to a lesser extent, CITY OF MIRACLES:

Vinya02-web

And, last but not least, a character you’ll be seeing a lot more of in CITY OF MIRACLES:

Nokov01-wip04

You can view all of Chanh Quach’s DIVINE CITIES artwork here.

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